Sumariu Livru "Polítika Produsaun Alimentar Timor-Leste"

*ENGLISH* (Versaun Tetum iha okos)



Timor-Leste is as an agricultural country with 70% of its population live in rural areas dependent on agriculture, fisheries and forestry (2015 census). But rice production remains a concern for the community since its independence on May 20th 2002. Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery (MAF 2002) has estimated that the country rice production is not enough to feed the whole population. Domestic rice consumption was 90,000 tons per year while farmers capacity to produce, with current rice production areas and irrigation system can only provide 30,000 tons of rice per year. Therefore, Timor-Leste needs to import about 60,000 tons per year to fulfil the national rice demand. This still happen even though the Government of Timor-Leste through the state budget each year has invested millions of dollar into the agricultural sector to adopt a modern system and brought many experts from other countries.

Girisonta (1981) stated that conventional or modern farming system is “a system that currently used in many countries around the world, oriented to agricultural industries, cultivation (processing), hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizer whose high dose, use herbicide and insecticide”. Analysis of the food and agriculture policy of Timor-Leste, especially the production of carbohydrate (food energy) focusses on the production of rice. Most people become accustomed to eating only rice as a staple food. This new culture was introduced during the era of Indonesian occupation and continues in the time of independence, even though there are other carbohydrate foods that farmer plant and produce every year according to the harvest season and micro-climate of each area. These carbohydrate foods can help complete the food needs of the country.

According to the 2015 census, the population growth of Timor-Leste has risen significantly 7,2% per year. The demand for food will increase while the total land of Timor-Leste will not change. Meanwhile, food prices (rice) in the international market will continue to rise because of the global situation. According to data the Ministry of Agriculture, the national rice consumption is approximately 140.000 tons more. In reality, the national production of paddy is only 38.000 tons each year. The conversion rate of paddy to rice is about 50% (19.000 tons of rice). The need for national consumption in 2016 was about 147.732 tons while the national production capacity of farmers was only about 35.351 tons of paddies. The two data above shows that if we rely solely on rice, each year our country needs to import food from other countries.

On the other side, despite being a small country, Timor-Leste is rich with different micro-climate, high genetic biodiversity, beautiful landscape and rich socio-culture. Land topography condition mainly mountainous and has a tropical climate with a long dry season. The reality shows that Timor-Leste food production can provide enough food for the country. However, the current food production policy needs to be changed, to focus on food diversification and educate people to eat a mixed variety of food, per the harvest season and micro-climate in each area.  Under the principle of food sovereignty, 'eat what you grow and grow what we eat.' The agricultural policy should promote agroecology and permaculture, proper farming technologies and reducing reliance on big machinery (tractors), which are costly and unsustainable. It should also encourage more investment in forest and water source conservation in the "upstream" to ensure sustainable production. Since most community living and farming in the rural area, it is necessary to reinforce the system of agriculture forest (agroecology).

This study examines changes in the traditional diet and agriculture system since the Indonesian occupation. It began to study changes in people’s attitude toward food from the previous period. This study attempted to track the reason for the shift in food production and agricultural policies to improved productivity and people's attitude to eating varieties of food.  It also seeks to find a good lesson learned that could be adopted to fix the failure in the past.

This book contained four chapters. The first chapter focuses on the general situation of food production and its problem. The author has argued that need to focus on three things such as levels of production, distribution, consumption and management level. The author also showed that according to the data, rice production at the national level is not enough to provide for domestic consumption needs. The second chapter discussed some thought about food production. In this chapter, the author makes a comparison between modern agriculture and organic agriculture argued that there are alternatives to substitute conventional agricultural system. The author also argued that organic agriculture is sustainable because it can improve soil fertility and enhance ecosystem, create a better environment and economically viable. The author gives some example of 'Green Revolution' which focus on modern agriculture which affects small farmers and the environment. The author also argued that the agriculture sector role is vital to sustaining life, so the development of the state should prioritize agriculture sector. The Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery (MAF) need a better action plan to increase food production with good quality to improve the country nutritional and health condition. To achieve this requires food and agriculture policy which and efficiency. On the conclusion and recommendation chapter, the author has argued that since food production within the country decreased Timor-Leste must rely on food imports from other countries with a price which that local producer cannot compete. The author also argued that the Stage budget for agriculture sector is small and no integrated plan reduces domestic producers' motivation to produce more. With this author recommends to the Government, the community, civil society and academics to collaborate and reinforce each other through various means to improve food production in the country.



Sumáriu Livru "Politika Produsaun Alimentar Timor-Leste"

Problema inseguransa ai-han kontinua sai preokupasaun boot ba komunidade Timor-Leste tomak. Maske governu liuhosi OJE investe ona osan tokon ba tokon iha setór agrikultura hodi adopta sistema modernu sira no lori espertu oioin husi nasaun seluk. Fatór ida tanba polítika produsaun alimentar no agrikultura seidauk define loloos tuir kondisaun topografia, klima, kultura kuda no han, matenek lokál no relasaun sosiál povu nian.

Girisonta (1981) haktuir, katak, sistema agrikultura konvensionál ka modernu katak, “nu’udar sistema ne’ebé tempu daudaun ne’e dezenvolve iha país barak iha mundu, agrikultura ne’ebé orienta liu ba indústria, kultivasaun (prosesamentu), fini íbrida, adubu kímiku ne’ebé ninia doze maka’as liu, utilizasaun erbisida no insektisida.

Esperiénsia hatudu, iha tempu okupasaun Indonézia, ema han ai-han kahur maibé iha tempu ukun rasik-an, povu Timor-Leste depende maka’as liu fós nu’udar ai-han prinsipál úniku. Tuir sensu nasionál 2015, konsume nasionál fós maizumenus 140.000 tonelada liu. Realidade produsaun nasionál, hare kulit 38.000 tonelada de’it kada tinan. Hare kulit dulas tiha hetan de’it fós 50% ka fós 19.000 tonelada. Nesesidade konsume nasionál 2016 maizumenus 140.773,2 tonelada. Serake produsaun nasionál tuir kbiit agrikultór nian prodús de’it hare kulit maizumenus 35.351 tonelada. Haree husi dadus rua iha leten hatudu ona katak sé ita depende de’it ba ai-han fós maka hakarak ka lakohi tinan-tinan Timor-Leste tenke importa fós husi nasaun seluk hodi kompleta nesesidade rai laran.

Estudu ida-ne’e hahú ezamina mudansa sira iha kultura han no sistema agrikultura hahú kedas husi tempu okupasaun Indonesian nian. Hahú ezamina mudansa sira iha ema nian hahú husi periodu sira liu ba. Estudu ida-ne’e koko atu buka tuir oinsá mak mudansa iha polítika produsaun alimentar no agrikultura bele hadi’a produsaun no atitude ema nian hodi konsume ai-han oioin. Estudu ida-ne’e mós koko atu buka tuir lisaun diak sira-ne’ebé bele adopta hodi hadi’ak fallansu sira iha pasadu.

Livru ida-ne’e fahe ba kapítulu haat. Kapítulu dahuluk haree ba situasaun jerál kona-ba produsaun alimentar no nia problema sira. Peskizadór argumenta katak presiza tau atensaun ba buat tolu mak hanesan nivel produsaun, nivel jestaun konsume no nivel distribuisaun. Peskizadór mós argumenta katak tuir dadus produsaun fós iha nivel nasionál la too hodi fornese ba nesesidade konsume rai laran. Kapítulu daruak diskute hanoin balun kona-ba produsaun alimentar. Iha kapítulu ne’e peskizadór halo komparasaun entre agrikultura modernu no agrikultura modernu no argumenta katak agrikultura orgánika maka alternativa diak hodi substitui bainhira mosu krize agrikultura modernu. Peskizadór mós argumenta katak ho agrikultura orgánika mak sustentável liu tanba bele konserva no habokur ekosistema rai no mós la kria poluisaun ba meiu-ambiente. Peskizadór argumenta tan ezemplu balu hanesan revolusaun verde ne’ebé foku liu ba agrikultura modernu ho eskala boot no fó impaktu maka’as ba agrikultór ki’ik sira no meiu-ambiente. Kapítulu datoluk diskute kona-ba polítika produsaun alimentar iha Timor-Leste, tinan 2015-2016. Peskizadór argumenta katak setór agrikultura kaer papél importante tebes hodi sustenta ema nia moris, tan-ne’e mak dezenvolvimentu estadu nian presiza tau aas setór agrikultura nu’udar prioridade dahuluk. Ministériu Agrikultura no Peska (MAP) presiza halo planu asaun ne’ebé diak atu hasa’e produsaun ai-han no iha kualidade nutrisaun ne’ebé diak no saudavel. Atu atinje ida-ne’e presiza polítika agrikultura no alimentar ne’ebé diak no efisiénsia.  Kapítulu konkluzaun no rekomendasaun peskizadór argumenta katak tanba produsaun ai-han rai laran menus Timor-Leste tenke depende ba importasaun ai-han husi nasaun seluk ho folin ne’ebé baratu halo produtór lokál sira labele kompete iha merkadu. Peskizadór mós argumenta katak alende ne’e Orsamentu Jerál Estadu ba setór agrikultura ki’ik tebes no laiha planu integradu hamenus produtór rai laran nia motivasaun atu prodús liu. Ho ida-ne’e peskizadór rekomenda ba parte tolu mak hanesan governu, komunidade, sosiedade sivíl no akadémiku sira presiza kolaborasaun hamutuk no reforsa malu liuhosi meiu oioin hodi hadi’a produsaun ai-han iha rai laran.



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