‘World Hunger Day’ 2019; Agroecology Needed to Address Hunger and Climate Crisis, Youth Play a Key Role

‘World Hunger Day’ 2019; Agroecology Needed to Address Hunger and Climate Crisis, Youth Play a Key Role

Rezultadu koilleta batar husi toos nain sira
This year, the world witnessed how the youth have taken it upon themselves to act urgently and as one to compel world leaders to take action on the worsening climate crisis that threatens their future and the future of this planet. People’s movements across the globe have seized the momentum to expose how corporate agriculture—characterized by chemical-intensive production, monocultures, loss of biodiversity, land grabbing, and destruction of rainforests—contributes greatly to the climate crisis. Youth-led voices from below have made it clear that nothing less than a paradigm shift is needed, especially in something as basic and encompassing as how we produce and consume our food.

Today, October 16, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) celebrates its annual World Food Day and calls for renewed efforts to achieve #ZeroHunger. But for majority of the world’s population, World Hunger Day is closer to reality. The FAO’s latest estimates peg the number of people who suffer from hunger at 820 million. It has also raised concerns over the rise of unhealthy diets “as a result of globalization,” with one-fifth of deaths worldwide linked to unhealthy eating habits. “Nutritious foods that constitute a healthy diet are not available or affordable for many people,” the FAO admits. 

World hunger and unhealthy diets have been a result of structural poverty, and especially in the case of those who directly produce food such as the millions of small-scale farmers in poor countries, the massive destruction of agriculture and loss of food sovereignty under neoliberal globalization. Many are displaced and forced to grow monocrops for export or become laborers in plantations run by large agribusinesses. They are without their own land to grow food and barely make enough to feed their own families, much less their communities. In such conditions of poverty, hunger and lack of livelihood opportunities, the rural youth are forced to migrate to the cities and to other countries to seek better livelihoods and employment opportunities, often in exploitative conditions of work with little social protection.

The imposition of hazardous pesticides and technologies such as genetically modified crops—a push for monopoly control by agrochemical transnational corporations with support of governments—has poisoned innumerable food producers. Chemical-intensive agriculture is destroying biodiversity on a massive scale. Pesticides are killing off pollinators and contaminating soil and water systems, while “genetic” drift is contaminating crop biodiversity and adversely affecting farmers saving seeds. Nutritious local crop varieties have disappeared or are fast disappearing. Today, only nine plant species account for 66% of total crop production, despite the fact that throughout history, more than 6,000 species have been cultivated for food. All of these mean that the food that is available is increasingly of poor nutrition, laden with toxic chemicals, and grown in a manner harmful to people and the environment. 

Hunger is exacerbated by the climate crisis, as extreme weather events affect poor agricultural communities the most. At the same time, profit-oriented agriculture is itself a big contributor to climate change. It is estimated that 30% of total greenhouse gas emissions is due to the use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and animal wastes.  This does not yet include the impact of the loss of carbon sinks due to the burning down and conversion of forests, grass and wetlands for industrial agriculture. For instance, the Amazon fires are caused mainly by big agribusiness interests that push for export crop and animal production that is part of unsustainable global food supply systems. There is no question that the dominant agricultural model will only lead to more land and resource grabs, hunger and food insecurity, deaths and disease, as well as hasten the catastrophic increase of global temperatures.

In contrast, agroecology is an economically viable and socially just approach to sustainable agriculture and food systems. It is grounded on ecological and social principles and the integration of science with local and indigenous knowledge and practice, emphasising farming in harmony with natural cycles and processes, and the political approach of food sovereignty — including the right to produce and access nutritious and culturally appropriate food.

Agroecological practices by farmers have been around for centuries and have fed generations of people. Today, agroecology is at the center of ongoing dialogues and innovations involving farmers, scientists, and social movements. Even the FAO Committee on World Food Security’s High Level Panel of Experts has recognised agroecology as an important transition pathway towards the sustainability of food systems. Meanwhile, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) recommends agroecology and diversification to increase the resilience of food systems to climate change.

Led by PAN Asia Pacific, this year’s #16DaysofGlobalAction on Agroecology was spearheaded by the youth and participated in by more than 40 partner organisations and their networks in 20 countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, North America and Europe. From October 1 to 16, 2019, various actions were taken to raise awareness on and call for agroecology, reaching out to an estimated 600,000 people. The #16DaysofGlobalAction is proof that agroecology is gaining momentum as a movement, from the grassroots level up to the global level.

We call on governments to end policies that promote the systematic corporatisation of agriculture: this includes the production and use of highly hazardous pesticides; commercialization of genetically-engineered crops; land and resource grabbing in the guise of development; state violence against environment and land rights defenders; among others. Local, national and international policymakers must put into place support mechanisms meant to replace chemical-intensive agriculture with agroecology, and enact policies that would ensure the people’s access to land and resources, and the exercise of food sovereignty.

The youth, rooted in social movements of farmers, agricultural laborers, and other small food producers, must play a key role in the struggle to promote agroecology and uphold food sovereignty. The world’s youth is unmatched in its energy and vigor as part of a movement that strives to free food production and consumption from the devastating grip of capital.

#YouthMarchOn for Agroecology and Food Sovereignty!

#AgroecologyNow!

 

*TETUM* 

Loron Mundiál Hamlaha” 2019

Agroekolojia Nesesáriu hodi Hatán ba Hamlaha no Krize Klimátika, Joven iha Papél Fundamentál

Tinan ida ne’e, mundu hare’e oinsá foin sa’e deside atu foti asaun ho urjénsia no obriga líderes mundiál atu hamutuk foti asaun hasoru krize klimátika ne’ebé fó ameasa ba sira nia futuru no futuru planeta ne’e nian. Movimentu povu iha mundu raiklaran aproveita tempu ne’e atu fo sai oinsá kompañia ka korporativu agrikultura – ne’ebé karakteriza husi produsaun kímika ne’ebé intensivu, monokultura, lakon biodiversidade, hadau rai, no destruisaun floresta – ne’ebé kontribui maka’as ba krize klimátika. Lian ne’ebé lidera husi foinsa’e hanesan iha okos hatudu momós katak presiza tebes atu mudansa iha paradigma, liu-liu ba asuntu báziku no relasiona ho oinsá ita prodúz no konsumu ita nia ai-han.

Ohin, loron 16 fulan Outubru, Organizasaun Ai-han no Agrikultura (FAO) selebra sira nia Loron Mundiál ba Ai-hán no apela esforsu foun atu alkansa #ZeroHamlaha. Maibé ba maioria populasaun mundiál, Loron Mundial Hamlaha besik liu ba realidade. Estimasaun ikus husi FAO hatudu katak númeru ema ne’ebe sofre hamlaha ho totál miliaun 820. Iha mos preokupasaun ba aumenta ba dieta naun-saudável “ne’ebe mak hanesan rezultadu husi globalizasaun,” ho numeru 1/5 husi mate hotu iha mundu iha ligasaun ho ábitu/toman han hahán naun-saudável. FAO admiti katak “ai-hán ho nutrisaun ne’ebe konstitui ba dieta saudável la disponível no la affordavel ba ema barak”.

Hamlaha mundiál no dieta naun-saudável sai hanesan rezultadu husi probreza estruturál, no liu-liu iha kazu ne’ebe maka liga ho sira ne’ebe maka direitamente prodúz ai-hán hanesan agrikultura-kiik miliaun resin iha nasaun kiak balun, destruisaun masál ba agrikultura no lakon soberania ai-hán iha globalizasaun neoliberál nia okos. Barak mak deslokadu no prátika monokultura forsadu ba esportasaun ka sai traballadór iha plantasaun ruma ne’ebe kontrola husi emprezas bo’ot agronegósiu nian. Sira laiha rai rasik atu kuda hahan no labele fornese ai-hán ne’ebe sufisienti ba sira nia familia rasik, sá-tan sira nia komunidade. Iha kondisaun hanesan pobreza, hamlaha no laiha oportunidade ba moris, obriga foinsa’e sira iha área rural hodi muda ba sidadi no rai seluk hodi buka moris diak no oportunidade ba servisu, ne’ebe mak dala barak servisu iha área ka kondisaun ne’ebe esplora fila fali sira ho protesaun sosiál ne’ebe menus.

Uza pestisida no teknolojia ne’ebe perigozu hanesan ai-hán lokál ne’ebe modifika jenétikamente (genetically-modified crops) – hanesan dudu ka puxa ba kontrolu monópolu husi emprezas transnasionál agrokímiku ho suporta husi governu – sai veneno ba produsaun ai-hán lubuk ida. Agrikultura ho kímika ne’ebe aas destrói dadauk ona biodiversidade ho skala ne’ebe bo’ot. Pestisida hahú oho dadauk ona polinizadór no hahú kontamina rai no sistema bee, enkuantu “movimentu” jenétika hahú kontamina biodiversidade hahán no afeita mos fini ne’ebe agrikultór sira rai-hela. Variedade nutrisaun ai-hán lokál hahú lakon ona no lakon dadauk ona. Ohin loron, iha deit espésie aihoris lokál sia ne’ebe mak representa 66% husi produsaun totál husi aihoris lokál, mesmu ke faktu husi istória hatudu katak, espésie liu 6,000 maka kuda ona hanesan ai-hán. Ida ne’e signifika katak hahán ne’ebe disponível menus nutrisaun, nakonu no veneno kímiku, no hamoris liu husi maneira ne’ebe perigozu ba ema no ambiente.

Mudansa klimátika fó impaktu ba hamlaha, liu-husi “extreme weather events” ne’ebe afeta ba komunidade agríkola liu-liu sira ne’ebe ki’ak. Iha tempu hanesan, agrikultura ne’ebe buka lukru sai hanesan kontributór bo’ot liu ba mudansa klimátika. Iha estimasaun katak 30% totál husi “greenhouse gas emissions” ka emisaun uma verde” ne’e afeta husi uza adubu kímiku, pestisida, no animal nia foer. Ida ne’e seidauk inklui ho impaktu husi karbon ne’ebe lakon tamba sunu no konversaun ai-laran, du’ut no rai bokon sira ba indústria agrikultura. Por ejemplu, ahi lakan iha Amazonia ne’e kauza husi interese agroekonómiku ne’ebe bo’ot hodi puxa ka dudu ba produsaun ai-hán lokál no produsaun animal ne’ebe mak hola parte iha insustentabilidade sistema provizaun aihan global. Laiha dúvida katak modelu agrikultura dominante sei rezulta ba iha lakon rai no rekursu, hamlaha, no inseguransa ai-hán, moras no mate, no aselera aumenta ba katástrope temperatura globál.

Iha kontráriu, agroekolojia hanesan abordajen  ne’ebe ekonómikamente viabel no sosiálmente hanesan aprosimasaun ida ne’ebe justu ba sustentabilidade agrikultura no sistema ai-hán. Bazeia ba prinsípiu ekolójiku no sosiál no integrasaun husi siénsia ho kuñesimentu no prátika lokál, foka liu ba agrikultura iha harmonia ho síklu no prosesu natural, no aprosimasaun polítika ba soberania ai-hán – inklui direitu atu prodúz no asesu ba ai-hán ne’ebe iha nutrisaun no kulturamente apropriadu.

Prátika agroekolójiku husi agrikultores ne’ebe mak ejisti liu sékulu balun ona no fó-hán ona ema husi jerasaun ba jerasaun. Ohin loron, agroekolojia sai hanesan sentru ba diálogu no inovasaun balun ne’ebe la’o hela ne’ebe involve mós agrikultores, sientista no movimentu sosiál. Até Painél Espesialista Nível Altu ba Komisaun Seguransa Ai-hán husi FAO nian mos rekuñese katak agroekolojia hanesan dalan tranzisaun importante ida ba sustentabilidade sistema ai-hán. Enkuantu nee’, Painel Intergovernamentál ba Mudansa Klimátika rekomenda agroekolojia no diversifikasaun atu bele aumenta reziliénsia husi sistema ai-han ba mudansa klimátika.

Lidera husi PAN iha Ázia Pasífika, #loron16baAsaunGlobal ba Agroekolojia ba tinan ida ne’e lidera husi foinsa’e no partisipa husi organizasaun parseiru liu 40 no sira nia rede iha nasaun 20 iha Ázia, Áfrika, Amérika Latina, Ámerika Norte no Europa. Husi loron 1 to’o 16 fulan Outubru, tinan 2019, iha aksaun oin-oin ne’ebe ema halo hodi hasa’e konsiénsia kona-ba no bolu ba agroekolojia, hodi halibur hamutuk ema ho estimasaun totál 600,000. #Loron16baAsaunGlobal hanesan prova katak agroekolojia hahú manán momentum hanesan movimentu, husi nivel baze ba nível globál.

Ami bolu governu sira hotu atu hapara polítika ne’ebe promove sistema korporasaun agrikultura: ne’e inklui produsaun no uzu pestisida perigosu ho kuantidade aas; komersializa produsaun ai-hán ne’ebe modifika jenétikamente; hadau rai no rekursu tan deit dezenvolvimentu; violénsia husi estadu hasoru defensór direitu ba rai no ambiente; entre sira selukPolítiku-nain sira lokál, nasionál, no internasionál tenki tau suporta ba mekanismu iha nia fatin signifika truka hotu kímiku-intensivu ba agrikultura ho agroekolojia, no promulga polítika ne’ebe bele asegura asesu ba rai no rekursu, no bele ejerse soberania ai-hán.

Foinsa’e, ne’ebe maka nia abut mai husi movement sosiál husi agrikultores, traballadór agrikultura, no produtór kiik-oan seluk ba ai-hán, tenki kaer papél importante iha luta ba promove agroekolojia no tane aas nafatin soberania ai-hán. Foinsa’e sira iha mundu agora dadauk ne’e inkomparável entermus sira nia enerjia no vigor hanesan parte ida husi movimentu ne’ebe luta atu liberta produsaun no konsumu ai-hán husi presaun harahun kapitál nian.

 

#FoinsaeKontinuaMarsa ba Agroekolojia no Soberania Ai-hán!

#AgroekolojiaAgora!

 

 


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